10.3 Cash-flow analysis and internal rate of return of a coconut palm wood furniture plant. By experience, frequent turning of the log during sawing yields the highest recovery of dense material, if broken down with circular or band-saws. From the crown, the edible heart (palmito) can be carved out and used as a vegetable. Initial moisture content, on the other hand, increases in the same directions, with lowest values at the bottom periphery (50 %) and highest (up to 400 %) in the stem centre at the top (Killmann, 1983). As decay progresses, a darkly pigmented liquid bleeds down the trunk from the point of invasion (usually a stem wound, e.g., Figure 1), covering the stem surface with a superficial black layer of stem fluids. The feed speed depends on the thickness of the boards and the revolutions per minute (rpm). Since any trunk wound may result in stem bleeding, close examination of the point of infection is required. In coconut: Physical description …leaning, ringed trunk of the coconut palm rises to a height of up to 25 metres (80 feet) from a swollen base and is surmounted by a graceful crown of giant featherlike leaves. Recovery in band-saw milling has proved to be the highest with up to 50 %. The coconut palm is actually the most widely grown palm tree in the world. The essential things that must be considered are: - density group and wood structure - the climate where it is to be used - the woodworking conditions. 27: Two-man ripsaw for coconut palm logs. A cavity may develop beneath the affected area. Although inappropriate, the term “coconut wood” has been established for the material of the coconut palm stem, and will therefore be used in this handbook as well. 1: Schematic density distribution in mature coconut palm stem, Photo 1: Cross section of coconut palm stem at breast height. Sulc (1983, 3) has assessed the mechanical properties for the different density groups (Table 2) of 80-year-old coconut palm stems from Mindanao, Philippines. One hundred and twenty WCT coconut palms of more than 20 years age affected by stem bleeding were selected in five farmers’ fields. Coconut palm logs are broken down in two steps (Figure 24 above). Coconut palm trees produce roots that grow just below the surface in a fibrous mass from the tree’s base, reaching out distances that are as far as the tree is tall. The trial was conducted in Devikulangara and Thekkekkara Panchayaths of Alappuzha district for 4 years from 2008 to 2012. In Sri Lanka, high yielding palms much older than 60 years are not uncommon. If this method is applied, the log has to be clamped either on a ramp or with the help of wooden pegs to the ground. The small palm tree can be identified by its single stem with long bushy pinnate fronds that measure around 3 ft. (1 m) long. Fig. When the plantation-grown palms reached this age in the 1960s, replanting programmes were developed and the question of economic removal and disposal of old palms arose. Stones or bullets in the stem, as well as dropping the saw-blade on concrete flooring, may result in breaking of the tips. The sawing of both tissues together results in rapid blunting of conventional saw-blades. The production rate is about 0.04 m3/man-hour. They are available ready-made and can easily be replaced when worn out. Table 35: Tool angle when shaping coconut palm wood with TC knives With its high starch and sugar content, it is a good substrate for growing edible mushrooms. On the contrary: the use of the timber generates a windfall profit to the farmer. While the other two agents have no direct impact on the timber quality, fungal attack does. 15 List of Figures The saws should either be tungsten-carbide (TC) tipped or equipped with stellited inserted teeth. The logs are loaded from the log-yard to the log skid. Loading can be done with a forklift, a farm tractor equipped with a frontloader, or manually over a ramp (Photo 28). Can be used for load-bearing structural Watering of the saw-blade during sawing has proved helpful in order to reduce the heating of the blade due to friction, and to reduce the clogging of sawdust in the gullets. Coconut palm wood must be machined with TC/Stellite-tipped cutting edges, which enable good operating results. The shallow root system, lack of a tap root and the palm tree’s preference for sandy soils make it susceptible for being easily uprooted. Ultimately the palm dies off. All mechanical properties which define the use of a timber are closely related to its density (weight/volume at given moisture content). The stem lacks bark, cambium, and with no secondary growth features, volume once formed remains unaltered. In other words, they consist of male and female flowers on the same inflorescence (spadix) that develops within a woody spathe. The Leaf 35 Inch Coconut Palm Stem. The choice of equipment depends on the size of the operation. The slabs are sorted out for production of small items such as tool handles, novelty items etc., or for firewood or charcoal. The stem … However, a mature palm may have as much as 18 000 vascular bundles which help it to withstand significant physical damage to its trunk, provided pest entry is prevented. The main produce is copra, the dried kernel of the nut. This gives a finished point similar to the second method. 10.2.2 Calculation of manufacturing costs. Coconut logs can be peeled and sliced. The dipping tank has to be protected by a roof to prevent the dilution of the preservative by rainwater. Insects usually attack the growing point of the palm, reduce its vitality and finally lead to its death. They are wear-resistant and need only face grinding. 19: Cutting pattern for coconut logs, Fig. The recommended standard equipment is as follows: - side grinder (for band-saw equalizer), - hammering bench (for band-saw roller-stretcher), - tools like hammers, straight edges, gauges. At the end of the last century, coconut palms were planted in larger plantations, especially in the Pacific and on the Philippines, Ceylon, East Africa and the Caribbean, for large-scale copra production. purposes, framing, flooring, staircases, tool handles, furniture. If the material was left to rot, the rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) would start to breed in the decaying material and attack the young seedlings. Some of these stems have branches and some do not. Depending on its oven-dry density, coconut wood can be segregated into three different groups (Figure 3): Timber from lower periphery of stem. Since they are used straight, their teeth can be TC-tipped. Root (wilt) Disease symptoms. However, due to the absence of rays, differences of properties in tangential and radial direction, as they exist in conventional timbers, are negligible. Four different steel types are used for the processing of solid timber, namely: Their advantages, disadvantages and uses are discussed in Table 9. 3: Cross section of coconut palm stem with density zones. Stellite is available in rod form and has to be fused under heat on to the base metal of the saw tooth. Coconut wood can only be sawn effectively with TC-or Stellite-tipped teeth! Download : Download high-res image (357KB) It has been cultivated by man for 4000 years. It can be done with a hand-gulleting machine after removal of the saw-blade from the rig, or with a portable “jockey” grinder, which can be clamped on to the saw-blade while on the rig. The steps connected with primary processing are: The coconut stem shows a decrease of physical and mechanical properties from periphery to pith over each cross-section. It also implies that only stems of tall varieties can be used for timber, not those of dwarf varieties. The name comes from the old Portuguese and Spanish word coco , meaning 'head' or 'skull', after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features. In most cases removal and later charcoaling is not economical since the charcoal recovery and its quality are low. The bite recommended is between 1 and 1.3 mm per tooth. As the coconut tree is propagated by seed, they are subjected to some variations which can be distinguished in the trees, fruit… All band-saw blades should be stellited. This experimental study subjected the coconut stem strips to various conditions in order to know the behaviour of the coconut strips in concrete. Due to their bending over the wheels, they can not be TC-tipped. The saw guides have to be properly set. Indoor use only, where no load is applied, e.g. The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is an erect palm in the family Arecaceae which is grown its fruits, used primarily for the extraction of coconut oil for use in cooking. The attack appears as brown spots on a cross cut or as a string spot on a longitudinal cut, where the parenchyma is gone and only the bundles remain intact. Coconut logs can be sawn in conventional band-saw mills (Photo 32). To know the IPM practices for Coconut, click here. 1. Inserted teeth can be used in smaller operations with transportable circular sawmills. , from cooking oil to soap and shoe polish wide gullets in saw-blade ), novelty items etc., medium-density-fibreboards! Dependent on size of operation and know-how/expertise available by man for 4000 years 15 List of Figures the coconut,. Depends very much on height and diameter of 300 mm a frame carries. 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