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His purpose is not for ushering in more market activity since his critique of the market is strong; he also appears to be pushing back against market solutions, for they are limited to meeting solvent needs. We are, at the same time, no less social beings than we are individual beings. How may we view this in term of John Paul’s program? Looking for opportunity, they find their way to Third World cities, but find themselves without cultural roots, as well as without knowledge and the training needed for integration into the new economy. Rome:Vatican 1891. Human rights span the full range of human activities; for example we have the right to life, to live in a united and moral family environment, the right to develop our intelligence and freedom to seek and know the truth, the right to establish a family and rear children(47,1). Pope John Paul II. Further, work which is structured by a responsible freedom which fully respects the human dignity of all who work can be the occasion for work to result in a ever expanding solidarity (a firm and persevering commitment to the good of others) in meeting the needs of others. In other cases the land is still the central element in the economic process, but those who cultivate it are excluded from ownership and are reduced to a state of quasi-servitude.71 In these cases, it is still possible today, as in the days of Rerum Novarum, to speak of inhuman exploitation”(33,2). Many people are struggling just to earn a bare minimum: “These are situations in which the rules of the earliest period of capitalism still flourish in conditions of ‘ruthlessness’ in no way inferior to the darkest moments of the first phase of industrialization. In the context of this document, it is clear that what is due to the person is what is necessary for fulfillment and integral development of the person. An important role of authentic human communities, those which foster that capacity for transcendence and full development of the person, is to destroy structures of sin, those forms of organization as well as habits in our behavior which stand in the way of the integral development of the person and full communion with others(38.2). Rather, a person is alienated “if he refuses to transcend himself and to live the experience of self-giving and of the formation of an authentic human community oriented towards his final destiny, which is God”(41.3). He is urging us to exercise our freedom, including all the initiative we can muster, to take a major step in solving the social question. In Catholic social thought, both the discernment of needs and of how to fulfill them requires a view of the person and the resulting moral framework for decision-making. As importantly, human work is the way by which we participate with God in the ongoing creation of the world. A key mistake of socialism lay in the mistaken conception of the person, resulting in a distortion of the law which defined the exercise of freedom in opposition to private property(13.1). However, although the basis of the modern economy is human freedom in the economic sphere, the principle of the universal destination of goods requires the responsible use of freedom. New Catholic Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia.com. An exemplification of true freedom is the use of our intelligence and freedom to pursue God’s will that we enter into a relationship of solidarity and communion with others through a free gift of self(41,3). The encyclical Centesimus Annus was written in 1991 by Pope John Paul II on the one hundredth anniversary of Rerum Novarum. We are only fulfilled as human by being part of and helping to create loving families, communities, associations, and societies. He was writing both to give guidance to former Eastern bloc countries and to the developed and less developed countries of the West. postsin. This overriding view of justice is sometimes defined as giving everyone what is due to them. Otherwise, they are likely to: “seek an ever more refined satisfaction of their individual and secondary needs, while ignoring the principal and authentic needs which ought to regulate the manner of satisfying the other ones too”(41,4). Man’s social nature calls for legislation to protect the freedom of all(44,1), which includes the strict duty of providing for the welfare of workers(8,3), preventing exploitation(15.3), (protecting the natural rights to associate (form labor unions)(7,1), and regulating such things as hours and conditions of work(7,2). Money Money Money by Abba 6. He describes the operation of a business firm in a chain of markets in the following way: “Man works in order to provide for the needs of his family, his community, his nation, and ultimately all humanity. Venerati Fratres, carissimi Filii et Filiae, salutem et Apostolicam Benedictionem. That is the possibility to survive and to contribute to the common good. PAX TVONLINE 161 views. Each and every one of us is involved in participation and in the creation of culture; indeed, the involvement of the whole person is required for the development of authentic culture through the exercise of our intelligence, creativity, knowledge, self-control, sacrifice, solidarity, and promotion of the common good(51,1). At the same time, work has a ‘social’ dimension through its intimate relationship not only to the family, but also to the common good, since ‘it may truly be said that it is only by the labour of working-men that States grow rich’.”(CA6.1). John Paul wishes to avoid the materialistic foundation of Marx’s view of alienation based on production and ownership of the means of production by the bourgeoisie. It may be surprising to American economists, especially given the practice of at-will employment in the U.S., that John Paul II fully extends his view of community to the business firm: “In fact, the purpose of a business firm is not simply to make a profit, but is to be found in its very existence as a community of persons who in various ways are endeavouring to satisfy their basic needs, and who form a particular group at the service of the whole of society. Return to Table of Contents Print Article. Alienation is found also in work, when it is organized so as to ensure maximum returns and profits with no concern whether the worker, through his own labour, grows or diminishes as a person, either through increased sharing in a genuinely supportive community or through increased isolation in a maze of relationships marked by destructive competitiveness and estrangement, in which he is considered only a means and not an end(41,2). … Their dignity is seldom acknowledged and they have “no way of entering the network of knowledge and intercommunication which would enable them to see their qualities appreciated and utilized”(33,1). Recall that he uses the principle of subsidiarity as his justification for the critique of the social assistance state, particularly that its bureaucracies have become removed from real human needs, including the necessary feature of fraternal support. Central Themes... A preliminary summary by the United States Catholic Conference. Esort. “Centesimus Annus” Hundredth Anniversary St.Dominica Group 12 Von Xavier G. Tejedor Socorro Magella Suganob Francheska Gayle Evangelista Andrea Blancaflor 2. He wants, in particular, to ensure the subjectivity of society, which requires the full richness of social life with its myriad social groups maintaining a strong focus on the common good. It is also necessary to help these needy people to acquire expertise, to enter the circle of exchange, and to develop their skills in order to make the best use of their capacities and resources. Centesimus Annus 1. He finds the source of this responsible freedom in our faith: “A person who is concerned solely or primarily with possessing and enjoying, who is no longer able to control his instincts and passions, or to subordinate them by obedience to the truth, cannot be free: obedience to the truth about God and man is the first condition of freedom, making it possible for a person to order his needs and desires and to choose the means of satisfying them according to a correct scale of values, so that the ownership of things may become an occasion of growth for him”(41,4). The common good is another key element of Catholic social teaching that reflects our social nature. Human dignity for the full person, just wages, respect for private property, protection of the poor by the State, the existence of natural rights and their protection by the State; these are all true needs of persons. [3] John Paul issued the 1987 encyclical Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (SRS) on the twentieth anniversary of Pope Paul VI’s 1967 Populorum Progressio, addressed to Third World development. (2) Poverty reduction and support for integral development of the person have a public goods character to them in the sense that one may feel better if there is more of these goods, regardless of whether one supports the effort or not. A second major insight in Centesimus Annus is the importance of political freedom of individuals for reshaping nations into democracies. . He informs us that today’s conditions lack elementary justice despite international conventions and the internal laws of states(8,3). Amoris La-etitia, 44). Rerum Novarum. John Paul charges both society, in the sense of communities, groups, associations and organizations discussed above, and the state with social responsibilities as groupings of people with a natural social end. In particular, structures of solidarity are called for to counter structures of sin; in the 1987 encyclical, Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, he terms the all-consuming drives for profit and for power as the most typical structures of sin(SRS 37,1). Gronbacher, Gregory M. A. He places so much weight on solidarity because he believes that its practice can begin to heal the most fundamental ruptures of the modern world. The danger is that the essence of freedom can become self-love, contempt for God and neighbor(17.1). Discussion of themes and motifs in Karol Jozef Wojtyła's Centesimus Annus. That is, we are to establish right relations, the relations of brotherhood, with others, especially the poor, at the level of the individual person through the exercise of the social virtues. Recall that intermediary groups, in John Paul’s vision, are to defend, oversee, and direct the exercise of human rights, participation in them is necessary for fulfillment of the person; indeed, they have an identity of their own, with associated rights and duties. But if by "capitalism" is meant a system in which freedom in the economic sector is not circumscribed within a strong juridical framework which places it at the service of human freedom in its totality, and which sees it as a particular aspect of that freedom, the core of which is ethical and religious, then the reply is certainly negative”(42,2). Part I of this paper provides a look at key parts of John Paul’s theological anthropology, the underpinning of his views on the nature of the person and hence on human needs that must be met for the fulfillment and integral development of the person. The debates aim at elaborating materials about the application of the … It is only when we can find ways of living in authentic human communities that we will be able to rise above the structures of sin to which we so often fall prey. Finally, in his assessment of whether capitalism should become the goal of countries rebuilding or developing their countries, he first answers in the affirmative if certain conditions are met: “The answer is obviously complex. It is the particular task of the state to watch over the common good(11.2). “The encyclical, Centesimus Annus (The Hundredth Year), includes the fullest, and in many ways the most positive, treatment of the market economy in any papal documents…[it] acknowledges the role of profit and the wisdom of harnessing rather than suppressing self-interest in the service of economic production. Can I Live by Nick Cannon 9. 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