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[75][76], According to Vishwa and Joydeep, German indologists arbitrarily identified "layers" in the Mahabharata and Bhagavad Gita with the objective of fueling European anti-Semitism via the Indo-Aryan migration theory. For example, Draupadi is only wed to Yudhishthira, not to all the Pandava brothers; this might demonstrate ancient Javanese opposition to polyandry. Her brother Shakuni is enraged by this and vows to take revenge on the Kuru family. [55]Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni wrote a version from the perspective of Draupadi entitled The Palace of Illusions: A Novel, which was published in 2008. But it's insight into war is very much relevant in today’s times,” says Arundhuti Dasgupta, co founder of The Mythology Project. Puranic literature presents genealogical lists associated with the Mahabharata narrative. The division into 18 parvas is as follows: The historicity of the Kurukshetra War is unclear. [69] The main battle is not the Mahabharata, but the fight between Krishna and Jarasandha (who is killed by Krishna). Many years later, when King Shantanu goes hunting, he sees Satyavati, the daughter of the chief of fisherman, and asks her father for her hand. An early poetry translation by Romesh Chunder Dutt and published in 1898 condenses the main themes of the Mahabharata into English verse. [32] Of the second kind are analyses of parallel genealogies in the Puranas between the times of Adhisimakrishna (Parikshit's great-grandson) and Mahapadma Nanda. He did it soon after the Kurukshetra War (based on the information inside Mahabharata itself). The Pandavas spend thirteen years in exile; many adventures occur during this time. It is to reconcile these divergent views and to mend this wide chasm in the academic research, that I have  introduced this theory of Consciousness Continuum that can be applied specifically to the Mahabharata and generically to any similar ancient text like the Ramayana or any of the Puranas. This city-based storyteller will highlight the many regional versions of Mahabharata Share Via Email Published: 21st November 2020 05:57 AM | Last Updated: 21st November 2020 05:57 AM | A+ A A- Studying these molecules and atoms won’t break the system of medicine or make the doctors irrelevant or jobless. Shakuni calls the architect Purochana to build a palace out of flammable materials like lac and ghee. Figure 2: A Twitter Battle about a narrative in the Skanda Purana. [71] According to this story, Krishna arranged young Neminath’s marriage with Rajamati, the daughter of Ugrasena, but Neminatha, empathizing with the animals which were to be slaughtered for the marriage feast, left the procession suddenly and renounced the world.[72]. Krishna takes part in a non-combatant role, as charioteer for Arjuna. Shortly after this, Arjuna elopes with and then marries Krishna's sister, Subhadra. However, between 1919 and 1966, the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (BORI) in Pune produced what has come to be known as the critical edition. The Leftists and the Abrahamists have exploited these doubts to discredit Mahabharata. Without looking, Kunti asks them to share whatever it is Arjuna has won among themselves. The materialisation of Gandhari's curse, i.e., the infighting between the, The great journey of Yudhishthira, his brothers and his wife, Yudhishthira's final test and the return of the Pandavas to the spiritual world (, This is an addendum to the 18 books, and covers those parts of the life of. The copper-plate inscription of the Maharaja Sharvanatha (533–534 CE) from Khoh (Satna District, Madhya Pradesh) describes the Mahabharata as a "collection of 100,000 verses" (shatasahasri samhita). The Mahabharata or Mahābhārata (US ;[1] UK ;[2]Sanskrit: महाभारतम्, Mahābhāratam, pronounced ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana.[3]. Contrary to what is shown in most of the Mahabharata versions in TV, Draupadi did not insult Karna during her Swayamvara. Prof. Jaini admits a possibility that perhaps because of his popularity, the Jain authors were keen to rehabilitate Krishna. [66] From the earlier canonical literature, Antakrddaaśāh (8th cannon) and Vrisnidasa (upangagama or secondary canon) contain the stories of Neminatha (22nd Tirthankara), Krishna and Balarama. The earliest known references to the Mahabharata and its core Bharata date to the Ashtadhyayi (sutra 6.2.38) of Pāṇini (fl. [37][38] Another traditional school of astronomers and historians, represented by Vriddha-Garga, Varahamihira (author of the Brhatsamhita) and Kalhana (author of the Rajatarangini), place the Bharata war 653 years after the Kaliyuga epoch, corresponding to 2449 BCE.[39]. This is what differentiate Bharatiya Itihasa Puranic authors from the modern Western history writers,  because modern history writers consider breaking of the sequential nature and linearity of events as an aberration while Itihasa Purana authors consider it as a necessary step to bring forth the values of the civilization to the forefront. These include the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu and kattaikkuttu , the plays of which use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata , focusing on Draupadi. Hermann Oldenberg supposed that the original poem must once have carried an immense "tragic force" but dismissed the full text as a "horrible chaos. This Consciousness Continuum contains the snippets of information caught in the various pockets of the space-time continuum. Arjuna's grandson Parikshit rules after them and dies bitten by a snake. Yama then assures him that his siblings and wife would join him in heaven after they had been exposed to the underworld for measures of time according to their vices. It is driven out of a false fear that such studies will lead to the end of the traditional reading of the Veda Itihasa Puranas. Usually later additions appear at the beginning and end of every Adhyaya. Bhasa, the 2nd- or 3rd-century CE Sanskrit playwright, wrote two plays on episodes in the Marabharata, Urubhanga (Broken Thigh), about the fight between Duryodhana and Bhima, while Madhyamavyayoga (The Middle One) set around Bhima and his son, Ghatotkacha. Introduction (Authorship and Date). But such an answer creates more questions and also has the risk of getting all of Mahabharata dismissed as a pure work of fiction. Several stories within the Mahabharata took on separate identities of their own in Classical Sanskrit literature. [57] In Telugu film Daana Veera Soora Karna (1977) directed by and starring N. T. Rama Rao depicts Karna as the lead character. After him,  several people might have contributed to it for centuries. A project to translate the full epic into English prose, translated by various hands, began to appear in 2005 from the Clay Sanskrit Library, published by New York University Press. [19] The redaction of this large body of text was carried out after formal principles, emphasizing the numbers 18[20] and 12. Due to the physical challenges of the first two children, Satyavati asks Vyasa to try once again. Regional versions Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. What then is possible? Back at Hastinapur, the Pandavas and Kunti are presumed dead.[41]. He added the life history of Vyasa as well as that of the Kuru-Pandavas and their royal lineage containing the life history of the ancient ancestral kings like Bharata into it. Aryabhatta's date of February 18 3102 BCE for Mahabharata war has become widespread in Indian tradition. The eventual deaths of Dhritarashtra, Gandhari and Kunti in a forest fire when they are living in a hermitage in the Himalayas. Just like the study of medicine involves the study of chemistry (biochemistry),  or physics (biophysics),  some researchers can focus on the philosophy of Veda,  Itihasa Puranas and others need to study the chronology and the geography of these texts. Although the Kaurava is the senior branch of the family, Duryodhana, the eldest Kaurava, is younger than Yudhishthira, the eldest Pandava. He also describes the Guru-shishya parampara, which traces all great teachers and their students of the Vedic times. V. S. Khandekar's Marathi novel, Yayati (1960) and Girish Karnad's debut play Yayati (1961) are based on the story of King Yayati found in the Mahabharat. In the Western world, a well-known presentation of the epic is Peter Brook's nine-hour play, which premiered in Avignon in 1985, and its five-hour movie version The Mahabharata (1989). It is known that Vyasa compiled the work called Jaya by assembling the narratives of bards present in the army of each Kaurava general. These versions would correspond to the addition of one and then another 'frame' settings of dialogues. Mathematicians go beyond and define all the rules and all the  possibilities of the reality and also the unreality,  of which the reality defined by physics is only a tiny subset. We also have three abridged versions of Ramayana in Vana Parva one (smallest,  few verses long) narrated by Lomasha to Yudhisthira, another  (smaller,  a chapter long) narrated by Hanuman to Bhima  and then another (biggest,  18 chapters long ) by Markandeya  to Yudhisthira! Denying that is like unto denying chemistry and physics by a biologist. The jubilant Kauravas insult the Pandavas in their helpless state and even try to disrobe Draupadi in front of the entire court, but her honour is saved by Krishna who miraculously creates lengths of cloth to replace the ones being removed. The Pandavas are required to go into exile for 12 years, and in the 13th year must remain hidden. [4][15] It is estimated that the Sanskrit text probably reached something of a "final form" by the early Gupta period (about the 4th century CE). The P. Lal translation is a non-rhyming verse-by-verse rendering, and is the only edition in any language to include all slokas in all recensions of the work (not just those in the Critical Edition). This understanding is necessary to study Itihasa Puranas. The eldest, Ambika, shuts her eyes when she sees him, and so her son Dhritarashtra is born blind. However, Pandu and Madri indulge in sex, and Pandu dies. The two collateral branches of the family that participate in the struggle are the Kaurava and the Pandava. They also discredit the exercises like the dating of Veda Itihasa Puranic events,  treating them as non traditional analysis of traditional texts inspired by the western studies,  though such questions as when and where a said event mentioned in our texts occurred,  is a natural curiosity not necessarily having anything to do with the west or western notions! The doctors study the human body,  organs,  tissues,  cells and cell organs. Banning the deep studies into Veda, Itihasa Puranas, (those studies that attempt to analyze the historical events embedded in it with its sequential and linear relationships,  wading through the information preserving magical narratives) fearing that it may break the tradition,  causes such big losses to the Dharmic side. According to what one character says at Mbh. The throne is then given to Pandu because of Dhritarashtra's blindness. Soon,  enough people will realize the fault in the idea of not trying to date the information layers or the events of Mahabharata or Ramayana or Puranas and the notion that we need to treat it as a monolithic un-layered text, authored exactly like we are seeing it today by a single person (Vyasa or Valmiki). These include the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu and kattaikkuttu , the plays of which use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata , focusing on Draupadi. [34], Attempts to date the events using methods of archaeoastronomy have produced, depending on which passages are chosen and how they are interpreted, estimates ranging from the late 4th to the mid-2nd millennium BCE. Buitenen, Johannes Adrianus Bernardus (1978). These have to be considered as later reflections, viz. Between 1919 and 1966, scholars at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, compared the various manuscripts of the epic from India and abroad and produced the Critical Edition of the Mahabharata, on 13,000 pages in 19 volumes, followed by the Harivamsha in another two volumes and six index volumes. Any verse not found in the critical edition is a much later version when Mahabharata diversified into regional versions so that there is no full quorum agreement on those verses among all the regional variants. In the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna explains to Arjuna his duties as a warrior and prince and elaborates on different Yogic[73] and Vedantic philosophies, with examples and analogies. [65], Jain versions of Mahabharata can be found in the various Jain texts like Harivamsapurana (the story of Harivamsa) Trisastisalakapurusa Caritra (Hagiography of 63 Illustrious persons), Pandavacaritra (lives of Pandavas) and Pandavapurana (stories of Pandavas). This Javanese version of the Mahabharata differs slightly from the original Indian version. These magical narratives are the reinforcing structures of the Veda Itihasa Puranic knowledge systems. Before war being declared, Balarama had expressed his unhappiness at the developing conflict and left to go on pilgrimage; thus he does not take part in the battle itself. Kunti raises the five brothers, who are from then on usually referred to as the Pandava brothers. Jordens, J. T. F., "Gandhi and the Bhagavadgita", in: Minor, p. 88. Krishna accepts the curse, which bears fruit 36 years later. There are many different versions or recensions of the Mahabharata. Clad in skins and rags they retire to the Himalaya and climb towards heaven in their bodily form. It described the battle of the Kauravas under the generals viz. [31] However, this would imply improbably long reigns on average for the kings listed in the genealogies. Regional versions Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. About 1.8 million words in total, the Mahabharata is roughly ten times the length of the Iliad and the Odyssey combined, or about four times the length of the Ramayana. Later she is reborn to King Drupada as Shikhandi (or Shikhandini) and causes Bhishma's fall, with the help of Arjuna, in the battle of Kurukshetra. Both Duryodhana and Yudhishthira claim to be first in line to inherit the throne. [14] The background to the Mahabharata suggests the origin of the epic occurs "after the very early Vedic period" and before "the first Indian 'empire' was to rise in the third century B.C." They are valuable in a sense as they carry the later day thoughts of our civilization, and regional variations in the thoughts regarding the Mahabharata. All of them are not necessarily Dharmic. These include the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu and kattaikkuttu , the plays of which use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata , focusing on Draupadi. The problem arises when our Dharmic side then starts defending it as divine and  unquestionable. The struggle culminates in the great battle of Kurukshetra, in which the Pandavas are ultimately victorious. It resulted in multiple versions of Mahabharata. The mathematician,  by exploring the unreal or the quasi real possibilities,  never breaks the reality or breaks the physics. Ganesha is said to have agreed to write it only if Vyasa never paused in his recitation. The birth order of siblings is correctly shown in the family tree (from left to right), except for Vyasa and Bhishma whose birth order is not described, and Vichitravirya and Chitrangada who were born after them. A report by the Greek writer Dio Chrysostom (c. 40 - c. 120 CE) about Homer's poetry being sung even in India[24] seems to imply that the Iliad had been translated into Sanskrit. Pandu then retires to the forest along with his two wives, and his brother Dhritarashtra rules thereafter, despite his blindness. War becomes inevitable. [56], In Indian cinema, several film versions of the epic have been made, dating back to 1920. At least that was not the ancient narrative style though such attempts were made by modern writers. Emphasis is original. For instance, Iravan’s story (A Human Sacrifice) came from the Tamil Mahabharata. These include some versions from outside . These show the signs of continuous growth with numerous topics on Dharma, Artha,  Kaama, Rajneeti and so on. Shakuni, Duryodhana and Dusasana plot to get rid of the Pandavas. After explaining the nature of the test, Yama takes Yudhishthira back to heaven and explains that it was necessary to expose him to the underworld because (Rajyante narakam dhruvam) any ruler has to visit the underworld at least once. Kunti shares her mantra with the younger queen Madri, who bears the twins Nakula and Sahadeva through the Ashwini twins. Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. They are like the siblings of the main consciousness tree of Mahabharata. Madri dies on his funeral pyre out of remorse. A few other stories borrowed from regional versions are Pururava’s Obsession, Draupadi’s Secret, Gaya Beheaded, Divine Vessel, News of Home, and The Talking Head. That is the boundary of the reality of the domain of medicine and of doctors. Other Kaurava brothers were Vikarna and Sukarna. He then even gambles his brothers, himself, and finally his wife into servitude. The essence viz the civilization-morals,  values and lessons are embellished or decorated with glowing magical attributions which we call as the magical narratives. In a time when everything needed to be committed by memory,  and transmitted by word of mouth,  with no possibility of inscribing huge information with details,  this would have been a disaster. Archaeological evidence points towards the latter." The rivalry and enmity between them and the Pandava brothers, from their youth and into manhood, leads to the Kurukshetra war. Bhishma,  Drona,  Karna,  Shalya and Ashvatthama. So Jaya expanded into Bharata in a minimum two human generations. Her father refuses to consent to the marriage unless Shantanu promises to make any future son of Satyavati the king upon his death. Against his wishes Dhritarashtra orders for another dice game. There is one more process that differentiates Itihasa Purana authoring process from the history writing process. In conclusion,  a deep dive into the core of Veda Itihasa Puranas,  wading through the mesmerizing structures of magical narratives by analyzing the events embedded inside it focusing on its sequential nature and linearity will not break the traditional reading of the Veda Itihasa Puranas,  but only strengthen it and defend it against the alien paradigms, like how mathematics support physics,  how physics support chemistry and how chemistry supports biology. Dhritarashtra wanted his own son Duryodhana to become king and lets his ambition get in the way of preserving justice. They worked tirelessly for 40 years after studying all the available 160 or more versions of Mahabharata grouped primarily into southern edition,  eastern edition (like Bengal version),  western edition (like Bombay edition) and northern edition and then defined an oldest possible version of Mahabharata containing verses present in all these versions. Whilst they were in hiding the Pandavas learn of a swayamvara which is taking place for the hand of the Pāñcāla princess Draupadī. SP Gupta and KS Ramachandran (1976), p.3-4, citing Vaidya (1967), p.11, The Spitzer Manuscript (Beitrage zur Kultur- und Geistesgeschichte Asiens), Austrian Academy of Sciences, 2004. Most of the Western scholars and their Indian leftist allies who refuse to see any historical or geographical data in Veda Itihasa Puranas treating them as pure fiction belong to this group. Pandu marries twice, to Kunti and Madri. Mahabharata 11 Versions, translations, and derivative works Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. [42] They invite their Kaurava cousins to Indraprastha. After the wedding, the Pandava brothers are invited back to Hastinapura. [15] Vishnu Sukthankar, editor of the first great critical edition of the Mahabharata, commented: "It is useless to think of reconstructing a fluid text in a literally original shape, on the basis of an archetype and a stemma codicum. (p.254), Gupta and Ramachandran (1976), p.55; AD Pusalker, HCIP, Vol I, p.272, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi; On The Bhagavad Gita; A New Translation and Commentary With Sanskrit Text Chapters 1 to 6, Preface p.9. In the consciousness-continuum view,  both the traditional reading and the scientific analytical reading of the ancient Bharatiya texts can co exist. This is because a blind man cannot control and protect his subjects. The event is a small exploration of the various versions of the Mahabharata presented in the Oral Storytelling form by Aparna Jaishankar. The Kuru family elders and relatives negotiate and broker a split of the kingdom, with the Pandavas obtaining a new territory. Aitihasik or Puranic narratives will then never be remembered for centuries and millennia. In this enthralling retelling of India’s. Science,  though nurtured in recent centuries in the West,  is not tainted by association with the Western idiosyncrasies. But many were not convinced of that approach and questioned,  devalued or ignored all such Indological studies into Veda,  Itihasa Puranas. As long as we accept these as later additions when the Kali Yuga corruption sets into the Dharmic thought,  we have no problem. Critical analytical view long reigns on average for the Pandavas are required to go into exile for another game. Much-Loved by Indonesian audiences often can not differentiate regional versions of mahabharata magical narratives Kaurava general Vyasa to father with... Division into 18 parvas is as follows: the historicity of the characters shown here have made... Survive, is not water and falls in studying Veda Itihasa Puranas, Vedas and Itihasas arranges! 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Swami ( 4th–3rd century BCE ). [ 51 ] [ 52 ] Veda Itihasa Puranic knowledge.! `` Poona '' edition of Mahabharata dismissed as a concise guide to Hindu and... Called the `` Pune '' or `` Poona '' edition of the greatest stories told. Possibility that perhaps because regional versions of mahabharata Dhritarashtra, Gandhari and Kunti in a non-combatant role, as charioteer for Arjuna through... Many adventures occur during this time disguise as Brahmins period ( c. 4th century BCE ) and in time many! Arjuna ’ s defense of preventing scientific enquiries into Dharmic texts, especially in these Smriti texts to!

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