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Not all of the factors listed are present in all types of honey, and these compounds must be tested for and considered for clinical applications 3. For example, a compositional analysis of 26 samples of honey showed some important differences between different honey varieties but these did not include the sugar composition. The MIC … These methods are commonly used in microbiological laboratories according to CLSI guidelines (Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute). All honey samples as well as artificial honey were tested at a number of concentrations (1%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% (w/v)). Honey is an example of a naturally available product and is the only concentrated sweetener that can be found in nature. Molan also highlights that dark-coloured honey obtained from the mountains of central Europe has a particularly high antibacterial activity compared to the light variant from the same region [10]. Moreover, it is evident that the season also has a noticeable effect on the total phenolic (TP) acid content of honey. of gentamicin and three kinds of pure honey obtained from Ibadan and Abeokuta in south west Nigeria, using undiluted and fresh aqueous dilutions of 1 : 2, 1 : 4, and 1 : 6 in an agar diffusion method. Nevertheless, the content of individual carbohydrates did vary and ranged between 329.2 to 426.3 mg/g for fructose and glucose (as the dominant components) [13]. Abstract. This review covers the antibacterial activity of honey, its use in the treatment of infection and diseases, and the features that are relevant to its activity. Honey has been in use as a wound dressing for thousands of years.1,2 In the past few decades, there has been a large amount of clinical evidence has been accumulated that demonstrates the effectiveness of honey in this application.3,4 However, it is only in more recent times that the science behind the efficacy has become available. After all, honey has well-known antimicrobial properties, but it’s hardly recommended to use it like Bactine on a cut. In contrast, Agbaje et al., reported that 100% honey might not proffer a total solution to the current problems facing bacterial chemotherapy when compared to 0.2% ciprofloxacin and 2.5% tetracycline [80]. A progressive increase in the inhibition was reported for most honey samples at the highest concentration in this study (at 20% at least 75% inhibition) except for K. pneumoniae which interestingly showed no inhibition at all. Each tube or well is inoculated with the standardized test microorganisms and incubated. A study by Alnaqdy et al. There are different varieties of lemon. This suggests that honey contains other important components with antibacterial properties. Inhibine is a term that has been used to define the antibacterial agent in honey, with the “inhibine number” being used to describe the degree of dilution to which a particular type of honey keeps its antibacterial activity. Jeddar et al.’s study has been followed up by a number of other studies seeking to measure and justify the antibacterial action of honey. In another in vivo experiment, a significant decrease in the count of E. coli cells in faecal samples was observed in rats that had previously been inoculated orally with E. coli and fed 2 g honey daily for three days in comparison with glucose-, fructose-, and sucrose-fed controls [75]. These variations in the constituents of honey, however, do not generally affect the main components, fructose and glucose, which are always the major sugars present. Honey has drawn increasing attention as a remedy for wound treatment of different kinds, mainly due to a verified antibacterial activity [1]. Although the enzyme, glucose oxidase, is naturally present in honey, it is inactive in undiluted honey because of the low pH conditions [30]. The method involves preparing two-fold dilutions of honey in a broth and dispensing them to tubes (macrodilution version) or to 96-well microtiter plates (microdilution version). antibacterial effect of honey during its extraction, processing, and storage is the direct light. The antimicrobial activity of this product is highly complex. According to the results of Estevinho et al., dark honey has a high level of phenolic compounds and this has been shown to have a good correlation with its higher antibacterial activity [24]. The colour of honey ranges from light yellow, through to amber and dark reddish amber to a nearly black colour [23]. Najla A. Albaridi, "Antibacterial Potency of Honey", International Journal of Microbiology, vol. To compare the antibacterial effect of different honey types. This experiment compares the effect of different types of honey on bacteria growing on agar plates. It is important to note that the level of hydrogen peroxide in honey is also determined by the presence and action of catalase. Antibacterial effects of honey – experiment, Published 30 May 2008, Updated 28 May 2015. The samples included Kanuka, Manuka, Heather, and Kamah honey. This study aims to investigate antibacterial activity of five varieties of Malaysian honey (three monofloral; acacia, gelam and pineapple, and two polyfloral; kelulut and tualang) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas … It was originally believed that hydrogen peroxide is the only factor responsible for the antibacterial effect of diluted honey, and this antibacterial activity of honey could be completely removed by the addition of catalase [50, 51]. The results showed the presence of 14 phenolic compounds which were mainly phenolic acids and flavonoids. Of the solids in honey, 84% is a mixture of the monosaccharides fructose and glucose125. A. Niemira, and L. R. Beuchat, “Inhibitory activity of honey against foodborne pathogens as influenced by the presence of hydrogen peroxide and level of antioxidant power,”, J. Bertoncelj, U. Dobersek, M. Jamnik, and T. Golob, “Evaluation of the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and colour of Slovenian honey,”, L. Estevinho, A. P. Pereira, L. Moreira, L. G. Dias, and E. Pereira, “Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of phenolic compounds extracts of Northeast Portugal honey,”, K. L. Allen, P. C. Molan, and G. M. Reid, “A survey of the antibacterial activity of some New Zealand honeys,”, V. Nanda, B. C. Sarkar, H. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bawa, “Physico-chemical properties and estimation of mineral content in honey produced from different plants in Northern India,”, T. Marshall and K. M. Williams, “Electrophoresis of honey: characterization of trace proteins from a complex biological matrix by silver staining,”, S. Serrano, R. Espejo, M. Villarejo, and M. L. Jodral, “Diastase and invertase activities in Andalusian honeys,”, P. Vit and P. Pulcini, “Diastase and invertase activities in Meliponini and Trigonini honeys from Venezuela,”, J. W. White Jr., M. H. Subers, and A. I. Schepartz, “The identification of inhibine, the antibacterial factor in honey, as hydrogen peroxide and its origin in a honey glucose-oxidase system,”, J. M. Andrews, “Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations,”, T. Patton, J. Barrett, J. Brennan, and N. Moran, “Use of a spectrophotometric bioassay for determination of microbial sensitivity to manuka honey,”, S. Bogdanov, “Nature and origin of the antibacterial substances in honey,”, P. E. Lusby, A. L. Coombes, and J. M. Wilkinson, “Bactericidal activity of different honeys against pathogenic bacteria,”, D. J. Willix, P. C. Molan, and C. G. Harfoot, “A comparison of the sensitivity of wound-infecting species of bacteria to the antibacterial activity of manuka honey and other honey,”, R. A. Cooper, P. C. Molan, and K. G. Harding, “Antibacterial activity of honey against strains of, M. S. Osato, S. G. Reddy, and D. Y. Graham, “Osmotic effect of honey on growth and viability of, M. Küçük, S. Kolaylı, Ş. Karaoğlu, E. Ulusoy, C. Baltacı, and F. Candan, “Biological activities and chemical composition of three honeys of different types from Anatolia,”, M. M. Cavia, M. A. Fernández-Muiño, S. R. Alonso-Torre, J. F. Huidobro, and M. T. Sancho, “Evolution of acidity of honeys from continental climates: influence of induced granulation,”, M. Ali, “Hydrogen peroxide therapies: recent insights into oxystatic and antimicrobial actions,”, L. M. Bang, C. Buntting, and P. Molan, “The effect of dilution on the rate of hydrogen peroxide production in honey and its implications for wound healing,”, S. Bogdanov, “Characterisation of antibacterial substances in honey,”, L. A. Roth, S. Kwan, and P. Sporns, “Use of a disc-assay system to detect oxytetracycline residues in honey,”, K. Brudzynski, K. Abubaker, L. Martin, and A. Other phenolic compounds were present in similar quantities, but these were not specifically identified due to a lack of analytical standards [24]. This was supported by another study in which solutions of pasture honey 25% (w/v) showed no detectable antibacterial activity in the presence of catalase but an activity equivalent to 14.8% phenol without catalase, whereas the same solution of Manuka honey had activity equivalent to 13.2% with and without catalase [36]. A study of the biological activity of chestnut, Herero floral, and Rhododendron honeys obtained from Anatolia in Turkey revealed activity against all the test microorganisms but the extracts gave rise to moderate inhibition against only a few microorganisms, e.g., H. pylori and S. aureus [38]. This experiment tests to see the efficacy of everyday natural products towards health and wellbeing as opposed to seeking conventional antibiotics, which can trigger problems such as antibiotic resistance. It is important to note, however, that in this assay the effective antibacterial concentration can be lower than the concentration applied to the agar due to honey’s dilution during diffusion [10]. Honey prevents microbial growth through the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), methylglyoxal (MGO), bee defensin-1, flavonoids, and a relatively low pH (~3.3) 13. Measurement of absorbance using fluorimetry or the spectrophotometric determination of growth has a greater sensitivity especially when used with low honey concentrations [32]. No inhibition was observed at 0.1% but the 1% concentration showed some inhibition with C. freundii, E. coli, M. phlei, and three species of Salmonella. Many factors have been shown to contribute to the antibacterial activity of honey, such as its high viscosity, mostly due to a high sugar concentration and low water content, which helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection. To investigate the fact that the antibacterial activity of honey is not only due to the activity of glucose oxidase, some studies have shown that adding catalase to honey is insufficient to remove all the antibacterial activity. It is now understood that honey is not just sugar syrup with certain physical properties that make … Honey has been reported to aid in wound healing, as it has special antibacterial and antibiotic properties . This method is usually used to establish the MIC and also MBC values in conjunction with the standard plate count. Methyl syringate (MSYR) was the major product in phenolic extracts of active Manuka honey isolated by Weston et al., comprising more than 45% of the TP [59]. 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